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Creating Win\u002DWin Solutions for Sustainable Landscape  Management and Green Growth  in South Sumatra Image
Policy brief

Creating Win-Win Solutions for Sustainable Landscape Management and Green Growth in South Sumatra

KELOLA Sendang (KS), an integrated sustainable landscape development project in South Sumatra, implemented targeted interventions from 2015 to 2020. The interventions were aimed at overcoming major challenges that hampered the province’s ability to conserve biologically- and ecologically important areas and reduce its greenhouse gas emissions. The challenges were: 1) widespread land conversion that threatened the province’s critically endangered wildlife (such as the Sumatran tiger and elephant) and vast peatlands; 2) a lack of financially-viable livelihoods and best management practices that would entice stakeholders away from more environmentally destructive business-as-usual activities; and 3) a lack of infrastructure for monitoring/policing of illegal activities (such as poaching and illegal land clearing). KS’s interventions were targeted at three groups: governments, companies, and communities. With governments, KS interventions were aimed at strengthening landscape governance through supporting a hierarchy of vertically integrated institutions, facilitating the establishment of regulations that enable the institutions to manage landscapes sustainably, and devising a pathway for the institutions to integrate sustainable landscape management as part of South Sumatra’s Master Plan for developing the province in support of the Governors’ Green-Growth vision. With companies, KS interventions were aimed at improving current peatland management practices covering water level management in concession lands to prevent flooding or the drying out of peatlands making them susceptible to fires, fire control for hotspots on concessions, and habitat protection and restoration. With communities, KS interventions were aimed at overcoming economic, technical, and tenurial barriers to improve people’s livelihoods.
Capung KELOLA Sendang  Image
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Capung KELOLA Sendang

Daftar jenis capung di Pulau Sumatra menurut tim DCI (Daftar Capung Indonesia) berjumlah 294 jenis, merujuk dari data dasar yang dikompilasi oleh Lieftinck dalam jurnal Treubia volume 22 -Suplement, “Handlist of Malaysian odonata, a catalogue of the dragonflies of the malay peninsula, sumatera, java, and borneo, including the adjacent small island”, yang diterbitkan Museum Zoologi Bogor, Kebun Raya Bogor pada tahun 1954 yang berjumlah 242 jenis. Dalam kurun waktu dua abad perjalanan eksplorasi keanekaragaman hayati di Indonesia, pengetahuan mengenai capung Sumatra bisa dikatakan berjalan lambat, didominasi peneliti asing dalam upaya mengungkap keanekaragaman jenis capung di pulau Sumatra masih terbilang tinggi, masih sedikit peneliti dalam negeri yang berkonsentrasi dalam eksplorasi capung. Eksplorasi capung di Lanskap KELOLA Sendang yang dilakukan pada tahun 2019, merupakan salah satu upaya mengungkap keanekaragaman jenis capung di sebagian kecil Pulau Sumatra. Selain keanekaragaman capung, respon capung dewasa terhadap perubahan lahan menjadi perhatian tersendiri. Walaupun kegunaan capung dewasa sebagai indikator yang sesuai untuk menunjukan kesehatan non akuatik masih kurang dipahami, akan tetapi capung dewasa merupakan serangga yang lebih mudah dan murah untuk memotret perubahan yang kompleks di dalam lanskap luas. Dari kegiatan eksplorasi tercatat 89 spesies capung yang terdiri dari 59 sub ordo anisoptera (capung biasa), dan 30 sub ordo zygoptera (capung jarum), 2 jenis diantaranya adalah jenis endemik Pulau Sumatra. Hasil temuan lainnya merupakan new record untuk pulau Sumatra, seperti Libellago dorsocyana yang dijumpai pada aliran-aliran deras di Sungai Batanghari Leko, sebelumnya capung yang memiliki warna hitam dengan variasi warna biru terang pada thorax dan abdomennya ditemukan di Kalimantan Barat, dan Pseudothemis jorina, catatan sebaran baru untuk Pulau Sumatera. Keberadaan capung tidak bisa dipisahkan dengan ekosistem perairan. Capung mempunyai hubungan yang erat dengan perairan karena berkaitan erat dengan siklus hidupnya. Perairan dimanfaatkan oleh capung untuk meletakkan telur yang nantinya akan berkembang menjadi larva yang disebut dengan nimfa, masa terpanjang dalam siklus hidup capung berada pada fase nimfa yang berada di dalam air, oleh karena itu capung dijadikan sebagai biondikator pencemaran air. Selain perairan, capung juga berkorelasi dengan keberadaan tutupan vegetasi, capung yang berada di daerah terbuka akan berbeda komposisi jenisnya dengan di daerah yang memiliki tutupan vegetasi, baik sedang maupun rapat. Respon capung dewasa terhadap perubahan tutupan vegetasi sudah banyak diteliti, seperti yang dilakukan oleh M.J Samway dan J.P Simaika tahun 2018-2012 di kawasan konservasi Afrika Selatan, yang menghasilkan Dragonfly Biotic Index. Oppel (2006) membandingkan komposisi jenis capung di hutan hujan tropis dengan hutan yang telah mengalami modifikasi (berubah menjadi pemukiman). Kawasan Lanskap KELOLA Sendang memiliki berbagai tipe habitat dan tata guna lahan. berdasarkan hasil eksplorasi, beberapa karakter Habitat telah diketahui dan dikelompokan sebagai habitat utama untuk capung, seperti habitat perairan terbuka, aliran anak sungai di dalam hutan dengan tutupan vegetasi rapat hingga sedang, hutan rawa gambut, hutan rawa gambut regenerasi muda yang ditumbuhi semak dan tumbuhan pionir, rawa gambut bekas terbakar (Lahan Terbuka), danau di dalam hutan, dan embung (situs buatan).
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Indonesia’s Social Forestry (SF) programme is promoted on the premise that it can provide people with rights to land. This can prove attractive to those who want to claim legal rights over land access and resource use where they have carried out work or wish to manage. Uncertain land tenure can be clarified and social conflicts over land can thereby be eliminated or reduced. SF is also promoted on the premise that in return for such rights, the programme can induce people to manage the lands sustainably, thereby reducing deforestation and improving forest quality. However, certain gaps prevent successful implementation of the programme. These gaps are barriers to participation (such as communities lacking legal citizenship and a lack of knowledge of SF); limited coordination between different levels of government that prevents a seamless implementation of SF; insufficient assistance and monitoring of activities that prevent SF implementers from achieving goals set out in their forest management plans and the lack of resources at the community level to implement SF. Two elements are essential in overcoming these gaps. First, target communities must be able to access lands legally without fear of eviction. Second, activities on these lands must be sufficiently monitored by authorised government bodies and sustainably managed so that SF livelihoods do not come at the expense of forest conservation. Putting in place these two elements becomes even harder in remote forested areas, where a bulk of the population are unregistered migrants. There is little infrastructure and support for remote communities to learn about SF and there is less revenue potential for forest conservation than for clearing them. The governments should prioritize these areas for SF as they present the largest gains for reducing social conflict through land rights’ acquisition. Helping such communities develop beneficial sustainable land management plans can also shift livelihoods away from those that exploit or deforest land. KS has assisted three villages – Muara Medak, Lubuk Bintialo, and Karang Sari – in obtaining SF permits. KS found that obtaining the permits and ensuring success in implementing SF rest on these steps: 1) securing buy-in from stakeholders so that action taken is legitimate and aligned with the needs of all; 2) building capacity of local institutions to simultaneously improve livelihood opportunities and increase conservation efforts; 3) generating market access and/or multiple sector involvement to ensure continuity of SF activities. This brief details how governments, communities, civil society organisations, and companies can implement the steps successfully. The steps identify which stakeholders to be targeted; what capacities to be improved; and types of SF activities are most likely to generate long-term support. These elements produce a conducive environment for SF that enables communities to legally manage forest areas and to do so in a sustainable manner that reduces conflict and strengthens conservation efforts.
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